## Neutral Density Filters

The main purpose of using neutral density (i.e., ND) filters is to reduce the amount of light that can pass through the lens. As a result, if a shutter speed is kept the same, after adding a neutral density filter, a larger aperture must be used to obtain the same exposure. Similarly, if an aperture is kept the same, after adding a neutral density filter, a slower shutter speed must be used to obtain the same exposure. This can be seen in the following diagram. Note that this diagram was discussed in the Program Mode (950, 990 and 995).

Recall that the thick red line indicates a constant exposure value (i.e., EV). To achieve this “correct” exposure, there are many different aperture-shutter speed combinations. After adding a ND filter, the exposure value is reduced because there is less light passing through the lens. This is shown as a dashed line in the above figure. Thus, if we want to keep the original shutter speed (without using a ND filter), aperture has to be wider; or, if we want to keep the original aperture, shutter speed must be slower.

Different ND filter manufacture many use a different way to indicate the amount of light a ND filter can reduce. There are two typical systems as shown below:

 Density 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 2.0 3 4.0 Reduction by f-stops 1/3 2/3 1 1 1/3 1 2/3 2 2 1/3 2 2/3 3 3 1/3 6 2/3 10 13 1/3

For example, Tiffen and B+W have 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 ND filters for reducing one, two and three stops of light. Hoya, on the other hand, uses 2×, 4× and 8× to indicate reducing 1 (i.e. 2=21), 2 (i.e., 4=22), and 3 (i.e., 8=23) stops.

All ND filters are gray in color. The deeper the color, the stronger the effect (i.e., reducing more light). The following shows Nikon’s ND4 (font) and ND8 (rear) filters. From the shadows, it is clear that a ND8 blocks more light than a ND4 does.

Based on this understanding, ND filters help us in at least three situations: (1) reduce the intensity of light; (2) use slower shutter speed; and (3) use larger aperture.

### Using Slower Shutter Speed

Reducing the intensity of light means we can either use a slower shutter speed or a larger aperture. A slower shutter speed can cause moving objects blurred (i.e., motion blur) which creates a sense of motion. The following images were taken using the Aperture-Priority Mode. The aperture was set to F2.8, the largest possible aperture, so that shutter speed can be reduced properly. The left image below was taken without a ND filter, and, as you can see, the truck (running about 40 miles) is frozen. Motion blur becomes even more significant if ND8 is used (right image below) which reduces the shutter speed to 1/8 of that used for the left image.

 Without ND With ND filter

### Using Larger Aperture

Since ND filters reduce the amount of light that can pass through the lens tube, they can be used to open up the aperture while keep the shutter speed the same. Keep in mind that a larger aperture produces a shallower Depth of Field. The following images were all taken with the same shutter speed. Using the ND filter reduces the aperture. Now the subject is well isolated from the background, and it shows a better sense of distance.

 Without ND With ND filter 1/160 @ f8 1/160 @ f4
 1/125 @ f14 1/125 @ f5.6

## All of Our Empty Jars

I just find this fascinating. It is a video composed of still shots (shot with a camera not a video cam), of long exposure shots. So each shot may be say 10 secs long, yet its captured into a single shot, that could then last forever or a split second. And combined in a carefully arranged sequence to create a story.

I guess what i like is the distortion of time.

## Out on Lake Travis

 Photos on Flickr

Lake Travis – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

## The Great Schlep

Sarah Silverman in “The Great Schlep”

• Became a merchant services provider, need to accept credit cards online/shopping carts, retail, virtual terminal, etc. #
• more on this soon.

Merchant account

Authorize.Net

## Open White Spaces for Everyone

A fight for universal Internet access is being waged in Washington over spectrum white spaces — empty frequencies between television channels that have the potential to connect millions to the information superhighway. The powerful corporate lobby would rather hoard this spectrum for themselves.

The Federal Communications Commission now faces a critical choice: Open this spectrum to bring more Americans online or side with the lobbyists and block innovation.

Fill out the form below and we will send your personalized message to your Senators and Representative.

Unless we speak out to our congressional representatives, large telephone and cable companies will continue to deny Internet access to millions who cannot access the information superhighway.

Please visit the URL below to check out what’s at stake and send a loud message directly to Congress:

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NonProfits Benefit from Social Media

## APOD: 2004 September 26 – Looking Back on an Eclipsed Earth

APOD: 2004 September 26 – Looking Back on an Eclipsed Earth
Here is what the Earth looks like during a solar eclipse. The shadow of the Moon can be seen darkening part of Earth. This shadow moved across the Earth at nearly 2000 kilometers per hour. Only observers near the center of the dark circle see a total solar eclipse – others see a partial eclipse where only part of the Sun appears blocked by the Moon. This spectacular picture of the 1999 August 11 solar eclipse was one of the last ever taken from the Mir space station, which was deorbited in a controlled re-entry in 2001.

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